Vascular Plants, Mosses and Lichens

Requirements include:

  • suitable soils or substrate.
  • adequate light and water for the duration of the growing season.
  • pollinators, usually insect species, for many flowering plants.

Threats include

  • physical disturbance.
  • habitat loss to development or natural succession.
  • changes to site hydrology.
  • competition with introduced plants.
  • herbicides.
  • collecting. Unlike vertebrates listed native plants are not protected outside of provincial protected areas and federal lands.
  • highly restricted distributions. Many species in this category are limited to one or a few very small sites, which exacerbates their vulnerability to all threats.


Protect known populations

  • Acquire habitat by purchase or via dedication during land subdivision, development permit, or rezoning processes.
  • Require conservation covenants on habitats during the land subdivision, development permit or rezoning processes.

Prevent collecting

  • Prevent collecting on lands within local government jurisdiction using a bylaw (municipalities only).

Reduce insecticide and herbicide use

  • Ban insecticide and herbicide use for cosmetic purposes on lands within jurisdiction (municipalities only).
  • Eliminate insecticide and herbicide use on local government lands.

Maintain natural fire frequency

  • Conduct controlled burns on local government lands, where and when appropriate, under the advise of a knowledgeable ecologist.
  • Consider species at risk when regulating the timing and extent of burning on private property.

Prevent/control invasive plant introductions

Prevent changes to habitat hydrology

  • Limit impermeable area in new developments through a zoning by-law.
  • Encourage clustered development to reduce the development footprint through density bonuses.
  • Require on-site infiltration of rainwater in new developments.
  • Reduce water use through pricing and lawn watering restrictions.
  • Reduce reliance on ecologically sensitive sources of municipal water.
  • Restrict tree cutting on steep slopes using a tree cutting bylaw (municipalities only).

Prevent trampling or other physical disturbances

  • Restrict access to known habitats on local government lands during the growing season.
  • Prevent burning of habitats during sensitive periods using the fire permitting process.
  • Include information on endangered plants, mosses and lichens and in public education materials and programming.